The government’s deal

  • Involves a ‘transition period’ of 20 months. This is meant to give the UK and EU enough time to negotiate and finalise their future trading relationship. It’ll also ensure businesses can adjust to any changes they need to make.
  • During the transition period, the UK will carry on as if it’s still part of the EU, but because it won’t be a member anymore, it won’t have any decision making power.
  • Creates a ‘backstop’ so if the UK and EU can’t come to an agreement there won’t be a border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. If the backstop kicks in, the entire UK will be part of a ‘customs territory’ with the EU.
  • Involves paying the EU a £39 billion ‘divorce’ bill. This is meant to settle any outstanding debts or contributions the UK has promised to the EU budget.

 

Norway deal

This is a kind of deal for the UK’s future relationship with the EU – not for how we would leave the EU.

  • Involves being part of the EU’s ‘single market’. The UK could continue to trade with the EU without any major obstacles. The UK could also strike free trade deals with other countries.
  • Means the UK would accept the EU’s four freedoms, including the freedom of movement, so there are no caps on immigration of citizens from other EU countries.
  • Requires the UK to accept other EU rules and regulations, like safety, food and environmental standards.
  • Because the UK wouldn’t be a full EU member, it wouldn’t have any formal say over its participation in the single market – for example, on rules and regulations.
  • The UK would make payments to the EU in this type of deal – though these would be less than what it currently pays.
  • In this deal, the UK would decide whether it’d want to be involved in other EU programmes – like the Common Agricultural Policy or the Common Fisheries Policy.

 

Canada

This is a kind of deal for the UK’s future relationship with the EU – not for how we would leave the EU.

  • Involves the UK having decision-making power over its rules and regulations – for example on products, food and the environment.
  • Because this means our rules could be different than the EU’s, it would likely involve border checks, and therefore a hard border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.
  • Gives the UK the ability to negotiate free trade deals with other countries.
  • In this kind of deal, the UK wouldn’t have to pay any membership fees to the EU.

 

No deal

  • Involves exiting the EU without a deal about how we leave, or what our relationship with the EU will be like after.
  • There wouldn’t be a transition period, so businesses might not have enough time to adjust to changes they’ll need to make once the UK is outside of the EU.
  • This could mean significant disruption to trade between the EU and the UK and could involve shortages of products from the EU such as food and medicines.
  • The UK may still have to pay a ‘divorce’ bill to the EU, but this is unclear.

 

Remain

  • Means the UK would stay in the EU and its associations – for example, the single market and the customs union, and continue to trade with the EU without any obstacles.
  • The UK would accept the EU’s rules and regulations, including freedom of movement. This means no caps on immigration of citizens from other EU countries.
  • Gives the UK a formal decision making role in the EU – so it’d have a say over any EU rules and regulations.
  • In this type of arrangement, the UK would make contributions to the EU’s budget.
  • The UK would be part of major EU programmes, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, which gives public money to farmers, and the Common Fisheries Policy, which sets the amount of catch different EU countries can fish.

 

This has been fact-checked by UK in a Changing Europe. It’s based at King’s College London, and is an independent, impartial, non-partisan academic initiative working on Brexit. It provides rigorous, high-quality research, information, insights and analysis on UK and EU issues. It aims to stand aside from the politics surrounding the debate. For more information, visit http://ukandeu.ac.uk/